Conexio consulting

THE ENVIRONMENTAL AND BIODIVERSITY ADVANTAGE OF TURKEY

Located in an area with all kinds of wheather, Turkey catches attention with its biological diversity comparing with the countries around. The number of plant species deploying in Turkey is almost equal to the number all over Europe. In addition with the last researches Turkey hosts 3.000 endemic, in total 13.000 taxon plants.

Turkey is the 9th richest country in Europe with its 34,4% endemism rate. This speciality of Turkey results from its geographical diversity.

The country is surrounded on three sides by sea and the mountainous areas over the coasts. This, constitues an attitude differences because of the structure of the mountains and a change in plant association. The diversity and richness of germplasm in Turkey has a relation with Anatolia’s involving in 3 different climates, Europe-Siberia, Mediterrenean and Iran- Turan floral region. Besides, the location of Anatolia on the way of the migratory routes and hosting many civilations have a great effect in this diversity and in the richness of its resources.

When examining the soil structure of Turkey, a very different ecological and climate structure can be seen between close areas. This is one of the main reasons of the species variety in Anatolia. Because the topographic, ecologic and temporal differences let many animals settle down in Anatolia and rise the variety. The species entered Anatolia from different regions and have been able to maintain their generations.

In Turkey there are near 650 fish species, 22 amphibian species, 106 reptile species, 450 bird and 132 mammal species. Turkey is one of the little countries that have a habitat for the Mediterranean seals, which are in danger of extinction. The endemic plants are very important economically. Some of the main sectors for the Turkish Economy like medicine, agriculture, pharmacy, forestry, livestock, fishing and tourism, depends on this biodiversity as raw material sources.

Some of the endemic plants in Turkey are consumed as nutrients, some are used as medical and aromatic essenses. For example, the endemic orchid varieties are used for making the traditional Turkish ‘salep’ drink.

Sage leaves are used in combination with mouthwash and syrups to prevent sore throat and inflammation. Saffron is used for coloring matter and spices as well as in medicine and cosmetics sector, folk medicine, in desserts and making turkish delight.

With its direct contribution to the economy, the biodiversity is serving ecologically for a healthy nature, like the oxygen and carbondioxide circulation in the air, maintaining the food chain, the biological control of bugs and dangerous animals, plant pollination, water protection, water and mineral circulation, natural recycle and waste decomposing.

We can see there is a great importance in biodiversity in terms of both economy and environmental health. Turkey is one of the most gifted countries having this variety and its vast resources. Foreign companies involved in this sector from all around the world are seeing this advantage and changing their direction to the country to invest.

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